Background. Differential gene expression in adipose tissue during diet-induced weight loss followed by a weight stability period is not well characterized. Markers of these processes may provide a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Objective. To identify differentially expressed genes in human adipose tissue during weight loss and weight maintenance after weight loss. Design. RNA from subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue from nine obese subjects was obtained and analyzed at baseline, after weight reduction on a low calorie diet (LCD), and after a period of group therapy in order to maintain weight stability. Results. Subjects lost 18.8 + 5.4% of their body weight during the LCD and maintained this weight during group therapy. Insulin sensitivity (HOMA) improved after weight loss with no further improvement during weight maintenance. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B (CDKN2B) and JAZF zinc finger 1 (JAZF1), associated with type 2 diabetes, were downregulated. We could also confirm the downregulation of candidates for obesity and related traits, such as tenomodulin (TNMD) and matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9), with weight loss. The expression of other candidates, such as cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector A (CIDEA) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) were upregulated during weight loss but returned to baseline levels during weight maintenance. Conclusion. Genes in the adipose tissue are differentially expressed during weight loss and weight maintenance after weight loss. Genes that show sustained regulation may be of potential interest as markers of the beneficial effects of weight loss whereas others seem to be primarily involved in the process of weight loss itself.