Human oviduct serves as a conduit for sperm in the peri-ovulatory phase and to nurture and facilitate transport of the developing embryo en route to the uterus for subsequent nidation during the luteal phase of the cycle. Interactions between the embryo and oviductal epithelial surface proteins and secreted products during the four day embryo transit are largely undefined. Herein, we have investigated gene expression in human oviduct in the early luteal vs. follicular phase to identify candidate genes and biomolecular processes that may participate in maturation and transport of the embryo as it traverses this tissue. Oviductal RNA was isolated, processed, and hybridized to oligonucleotide arrays. Resulting data were analyzed by bioinformatic approaches and revealed that 650 genes were significantly downregulated and 683 genes were significantly upregulated in the luteal vs. follicular phase. Real-time RT-PCR, immunoblot analysis, and immunohistochemistry confirmed select gene expression and cellular protein localization. The data demonstrate downregulation of genes involved in macrophage recruitment, immunomodulation, and matrix-degeneration and upregulation of ion transport and secretions as well as anti-angiogenic and early pregnancy recognition genes in luteal vs. follicular phase oviduct. Together, these data suggest a unique hormonally regulated environment during embryo development, maturation and transport through human oviduct.