Molecular adaptation of the intestinal mucosa occurs during microbial conventionalization to maintain a balanced immune response. However, the genetic regulation of such adaptation is obscure. Here, combined analysis of germ free and conventionalized mice revealed that the major molecular adaptations were initiated at day 4 of conventionalization with a strong induction of innate immune functions followed by stimulation of adaptive immune functions. We identified central regulatory genes and reconstructed a common regulatory network that appeared to be sufficient to regulate the dynamic adaptation of the intestinal mucosa to the colonizing microbiota. The majority of the genes within this regulatory network play roles in mucosal inflammatory diseases in mouse and human. We propose that the identified central regulatory network may serve as a genetic signature for control of intestinal homeostasis in healthy mice and may help to unravel the genetic basis of pathway dysregulation in human intestinal inflammatory diseases.