The mature CNS contains PDGFRA+ oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) which may remain quiescent, proliferate, or differentiate into oligodendrocytes. In human gliomas, rapidly proliferating Olig2+ cells resembling OPCs are frequently observed. We sought to identify, in vivo, candidate pathways uniquely required for OPC differentiation or quiescence. Using the bacTRAP methodology, we generated and analyzed mouse lines for translational profiling the major cells types (including OPCs), in the normal mouse brain. We then profiled oligodendoglial (Olig2+) cells from a mouse model of Pdgf-driven glioma. This analysis confirmed that Olig2+ tumor cells are most similar to OPCs, yet, it identified differences in key progenitor genes - candidates for promotion of differentiation or quiescence.