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Accession IconGSE28349

Effect of milk and soy formula feeding on hepatic gene expression in the neonatal pig

Organism Icon Sus scrofa
Sample Icon 18 Downloadable Samples
Technology Badge Icon Affymetrix Porcine Genome Array (porcine)

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The majority of babies in the US are formula-fed instead of breast fed. There are major differences in the composition of formulas and breast milk and yet little is known about metabolic differences in babies as the result of feeding these very different diets and how that might affect development or disease risk in later life. One concern is that soy-based formulas might have adverse health effects in babies as a result of the presence of low levels of estrogenic phytochemicals genistein and daidzein which are normally present in soy beans. In the current study, we used a piglet model to look at this question. Piglets were either fed breast milk from the sow or were fed two different infant formulas (cows milk-based or soy-based) from age 2 days to 21 days when pigs are normally weaned onto solid food. Blood glucose and lipids were measured. Formula-fed pigs were found to have lower cholesterol than breast fed piglets and in addition had larger stores of iron in their liver.Microarray analysis was carried out to see if changes in liver gene expression could explain these effects of formula feeding. It was found that overall gene expression profiles were influenced by formula feeding compared to breast fed neonates. Gender-independent and unique effects of formula influenced cholesterol and iron metabolism. Further, soy formula feeding in comparison to milk-based formula failed to reveal any estrogenic actions on hepatic gene expression in either male or female pigs.
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