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Accession IconGSE24581

Small Molecule Amiloride Modulates Oncogenic RNA Alternative Splicing to Devitalize Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Huh-7 Cells

Organism Icon Homo sapiens
Sample Icon 5 Downloadable Samples
Technology Badge Icon Affymetrix Human Human Exon 1.0 ST Array (huex10st)

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Screening small molecules and drugs for activity to modulate alternative splicing, we found that amiloride, distinct from four other intracellular pH-affecting analogues, could normalize the splicing of BCL-X, HIPK3 and RON/MISTR1 transcripts in human hepatocellular carcinoma Huh-7 cells. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, our proteomic analyses of amiloride-treated cells detected hypo-phosphorylation of splicing factor SF2/ASF and also decreased levels of SRp20 and two un-identified SR proteins. We further observed decreased phosphorylation of AKT, ERK1/2 and PP1, while increased phosphorylation of p38 and JNK, suggesting that amiloride treatment down-regulated kinases and up-regulated phosphatases in the signal pathways known to affect the splicing factor protein phosphorylation. The amiloride effects of splicing factor protein hypo-phosphorylation andnormalizedoncogenic RNA splicing were both abrogated by pre-treatment with a PP1 inhibitor. We then performed global exon array analysis of Huh-7 cells treated with amiloride for 24 hours. Using gene array chips (Affymetrix GeneChip Human Exon 1.0 ST Array of >518000 exons of 42974 genes) for exon array analysis (set parameters of correlation coefficient 0.7, splicing index -1.585 , and log2 ratio -1.585), we found that amiloride influenced the splicing patterns of 551 genes involving at least 584 exons, which included 495 known protein-coding genes involving 526 exons, many of which play key roles in functional networks of ion transport, extracellular matrix, cytoskeletons and genome maintenance. Cellular functional analyses revealed subsequent invasion and migration defects, cell cycle disruption, cytokinesis impairment, and lethal DNA degradation in amiloride-treated Huh-7 cells. This study thus provides mechanistic underpinnings for exploiting small molecule modulation of abnormal RNA splicing for cancer therapeutics.
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