Hereditary Persistence of Fetal Hemoglobin (HPFH) is characterized by persistent high levels of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) in adults. Several contributory factors, both genetic and environmental, have been identified, but others remain elusive. Ten of twenty-seven members from a Maltese family presented with HPFH. A genome-wide SNP scan followed by linkage analysis revealed a candidate region on chromosome 19p13.12-13. Sequencing identified a nonsense mutation in the KLF1 gene, p.K288X, ablating the DNA binding domain of this key erythroid transcriptional regulator. Only HPFH family members were heterozygote carriers of this mutation. Expression profiling on primary erythroid progenitors revealed down-regulation of KLF1 target genes in HPFH samples. Functional assays demonstrated that, in addition to its established role in adult globin expression, KLF1 is a critical activator of the BCL11A gene, encoding a suppressor of HbF expression. These observations provide a rationale for the effects of KLF1 haploinsufficiency on HbF levels. To identify differentially expressed genes, RNA was isolated from erythroid progenitors (HEPs) cultured from peripheral blood of four HPFH (KLF1 p.K288X/wt) and four non-HPFH family members (wt/wt) and used for genome-wide expression analysis.