It It is known that functional maturation of the small intestine occurring during the weaning period is facilitated by glucocorticoids (such as hydrocortisone, HC) including the increased expression of digestive hydrolases. However, the molecular mechanism(s) are not well understood, particularly in human gut. Here we report a microarray analysis of HC- induced changes in gene expression in H4 (a human fetal small intestinal epithelial cell line well-characterized in numerous previous studies). This study identified a large number of HC-affected genes, some involved in metabolism, cell cycle regulation, cell polarity, tight junction formation, and interactions with extracellular matrices. These effects could play an important role in HC-mediated enterocyte maturation in vivo and in vitro.