L1 retrotransposons are active elements in the genome, capable of mobilization in neuronal progenitor cells. Previously, we showed that chromatin remodeling during neuronal differentiation allows for a transient stimulation of L1 transcription. The activity of L1 retrotransposons during brain development can impact gene expression and neuronal function. Here we show that L1 neuronal retrotransposition in rodents is increased in the absence of MeCP2, a protein involved in global methylation and human neurodevelopmental diseases. Using neuronal progenitor cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells and human tissues, we revealed that Rett syndrome patients, with MeCP2 mutations, have increased susceptibility for L1 retrotransposition. Our data demonstrate that disease-related genetic mutations can influence the frequency of neuronal L1 retrotransposition, thereby increasing brain-specific genetic mosaicism.