Probiotic bacteria, specific representatives of bacterial species that are a common part of the human microbiota, are proposed to deliver health benefits to the consumer by modulation of intestinal function via largely unknown molecular mechanisms. To explore in vivo mucosal responses of healthy adults to probiotics, we obtained transcriptomes in an intervention study following a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over design. In the mucosa of the proximal small intestine of healthy volunteers, probiotic strains from the species Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. casei and L. rhamnosus each induced differential gene regulatory networks and pathways in the human mucosa. Comprehensive analyses revealed that these transcriptional networks regulate major basal mucosal processes, and uncovered remarkable similarity to response profiles obtained for specific bioactive molecules and drugs. This study elucidates how intestinal mucosa of healthy humans perceive different probiotics and provides avenues for rationally designed tests of clinical applications.