Metastatic disease is a primary cause of cancer-related death, and factors governing tumor cell metastasis have not been fully elucidated. Here we addressed this question by using tumor cell lines derived from mice that develop metastatic lung adenocarcinoma owing to expression of mutant K-ras and p53. A feature of metastasis-prone tumor cells that distinguished them from metastasis-incompetent tumor cells was plasticity in response to changes in their microenvironment. They transited reversibly between epithelial and mesenchymal states, forming highly polarized epithelial spheres in 3-dimensional culture that underwent epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) following treatment with transforming growth factor-beta or injection into syngeneic mice. This plasticity was entirely dependent upon the microRNA-200 family, which decreased during EMT. Forced expression of miR-200 abrogated the capacity of these tumor cells to undergo EMT, invade, and metastasize and conferred transcriptional features of metastasis-incompetent tumor cells. We conclude that microenvironmental cues direct tumor metastasis by regulating miR-200 expression.