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Accession IconGSE138064

Interferon-β corrects massive gene dysregulation in multiple sclerosis: Short-term and long-term effects on immune regulation and neuroprotection

Organism Icon Homo sapiens
Sample Icon 140 Downloadable Samples
Technology Badge Icon Affymetrix Human Transcriptome Array 2.0 (hta20)

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Background: In multiple sclerosis (MS), immune up-regulation is coupled to subnormal immune response to interferon-β (IFN-β) and low serum IFN-β levels. The relationship between the defect in IFN signalling and acute and long-term effects of IFN-β on gene expression in MS is inadequately understood. Methods: We profiled IFN-β-induced transcriptome shifts, using high-resolution microarrays on 227 mononuclear cell samples from IFN-β-treated MS Complete Responders (CR) stable for five years, and stable and active Partial Responders (PR), stable and active untreated MS, and healthy controls. Findings: IFN-β injection induced short-term changes in 1,200 genes compared to baseline expression after 4-day IFN washout. Pre-injection after washout, and in response to IFN-β injections, PR more frequently had abnormal gene expression than CR. Surprisingly, short-term IFN-β induced little shift in Th1/Th17/Th2 gene expression, but up-regulated immune-inhibitory genes (ILT, IDO1, PD-L1). Expression of 8,800 genes was dysregulated n therapy-naïve compared to IFN-β-treated patients. These long-term changes in protein-coding and long non-coding RNAs affect immunity, synaptic transmission, and CNS cell survival, and correct the disordered therapy-naïve transcriptome to near-normal. In keeping with its impact on clinical course and brain repair in MS, long-term IFN-β treatment reversed the overexpression of proinflammatory and MMP genes, while enhancing genes involved in the oligodendroglia-protective integrated stress response, neuroprotection, and immunoregulation. In the rectified long-term signature, 277 transcripts differed between stable PR and CR patients.
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