The zebrafish pineal gland (epiphysis) is an autonomous clock organ. In addition to being a site of melatonin production, it contains photoreceptor cells and functions as a circadian clock pace maker, making zebrafish a useful model system to study the developmental control of expression of genes associated with melatonin synthesis and photodetection, and the circadian clock. Here we have used DNA microarray technology to study the zebrafish pineal transcriptome. Analysis of gene expression at five different developmental stages (three embryonic and two adult) has revealed a highly dynamic transcriptional profile, revealing many genes that are highly expressed in the pineal gland. Statistical analysis of the data based on Gene Ontology (GO) annotation indicates that many transcription factors and cell cycle genes are highly expressed during embryonic stages, whereas genes dedicated to visual system signal transduction are preferentially expressed in the adult. Furthermore, several genes were identified that exhibit day/night differences in expression. Our data provide a rich source of candidate genes for distinct functions at different stages of pineal gland development.