The zinc finger transcription factor growth-factor-independent-1 (Gfi1) has been involved in various cellular differentiation processes. Gfi1 acts as a transcriptional repressor and splicing control factor upon binding to cognate binding sites in regulatory elements of its target genes. Here, we report that Gfi1-deficient mice develop autoimmunity. Gfi1-deficient peripheral B-cells show a hyperproliferative phenotype, leading to expansion of plasma cells, increased levels of nuclear autoantibodies, and immunoglobulin deposition in brain and kidneys. Dysregulation of multiple transcription factors and cell-cycle control elements may contribute to B-cell dependent autoimmunity. Gfi1 thus emerges as a novel master-regulator restricting autoimmunity.