Some commensal bacteria stimulate the immune system but do not present specific antigenicity. Such adjuvant effects have been reported for the bacterial species Lactobacillus plantarum. To study in vivo human responses to L. plantarum, a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over study was performed. Healthy adults were provided preparations of living and heat-killed L. plantarum bacteria, biopsies were taken from the intestinal mucosa and altered transcriptional profiles were analysed. Transcriptional profiles of human epithelia displayed striking differences upon exposure to living L. plantarum bacteria harvested at different growth phases. Modulation of NF-B-dependent pathways was central among the major altered cellular responses. This unique in vivo study shows which cellular pathways are associated with the induction of immune tolerance in mucosal tissues towards common adjuvanticity possessing lactobacilli.