Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium causes an acute inflammatory reaction in the cecum of streptomycin pre-treated mice. We determined global changes in gene expression elicited by serotype Typhimurium in the cecal mucosa. The gene expression profile was dominated by T cell derived cytokines and genes whose expression is known to be induced by these cytokines. Markedly increased mRNA levels of interferon (IFN-gamma), interleukin-22 (IL-22) and IL-17 were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. Furthermore, mRNA levels of genes whose expression is induced by IFN-gamma, IL-22 or IL-17, including macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (Nos2), lipocalin-2, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and keratinocyte-derived cytokine (KC), were also markedly increased. To assess the importance of T cells in orchestrating this pro-inflammatory gene expression profile, we depleted T cells using a monoclonal antibody prior to investigating cecal inflammation caused by serotype Typhimurium in streptomycin pre-treated mice. Depletion of CD3+ T cells resulted in a dramatic reduction in gross pathology, a significantly reduced recruitment of neutrophils and a marked reduction in mRNA levels of IFN-gamma, IL-22, IL-17, iNOS, lipocalin-2 and KC. Our results suggest that T cells play an important role in amplifying inflammatory responses induced by serotype Typhimurium in the cecal mucosa.