Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium cause a localized enteric infection in immunocompetent patients while human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients develop a life threatening bacteremia. We used a rhesus macaque ileal loop model to study how simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection triggers defects in mucosal barrier function that enhance S. Typhimurium dissemination. SIV infection resulted in significant depletion of CD4+ T cells in the intestinal mucosa. Gene expression profiling revealed a defective TH17 response (with suppression of IL-17 and IL-22 expression) and impaired homeostasis of the intestinal epithelium in SIV-infected animals during NTS infection. These findings correlated with an impaired ability of lamina propria CD4+ T cells from SIV-infected macaques to produce IL-17 upon ex vivo stimulation, while production of IFN-gamma was not affected. This cytokine imbalance in SIV-infected animals was associated with reduced expression of genes required for intestinal epithelial maintenance and repair, increased fluid secretion during NTS infection, epithelial damage and translocation of a non-invasive S. Typhimurium mutant. Although no defects in neutrophil recruitment were noted, the ileum of SIV-infected animals contained lower levels of the enzyme myeloperoxidase, which may indicate defects in neutrophil killing capacity. S. Typhimurium was recovered in markedly increased numbers from the mesenteric lymph nodes of SIV-infected macaques, illustrating the increased potential for systemic dissemination during co-infection. Our data suggest that SIV-infection causes a multi-factorial defect in mucosal barrier function that promotes bacterial dissemination.